Work for Years 3 and 4

Revision of work from Years 1 and 2

Pay special attention to the rules for adding suffixes.

New work for Years 3 and 4

Statutory requirements

Non‑statutory information and Spellzone resources

Adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters to words of more than one syllable.

If the last syllable of a word is stressed and ends with one consonant letter which has just one vowel letter before it, the final consonant letter is doubled before any ending beginning with a vowel letter is added. The consonant letter is not doubled if the syllable is unstressed.

Curriculum word list - 1
Curriculum word list - 2

The /ɪ/ sound spelt y elsewhere than at the end of words.

These words should be learnt as needed.

Curriculum word list

The /ʌ/ sound spelt ou.

These words should be learnt as needed.

Curriculum word list
Spellzone course word list

More prefixes.

Most prefixes are added to the beginning of root words without any changes in spelling, but see in– below.
Like un–, the prefixes dis– and mis– have negative meanings.
The prefix in– can mean both ‘not’ and ‘in’/‘into’. In the words given here it means ‘not’.

Curriculum word list
Spellzone course word list - 1
Spellzone course word list - 2
Spellzone course word list - de or dis

 

Before a root word starting with l, in– becomes il.
Before a root word starting with m or p, in– becomes im–.
Before a root word starting with r, in– becomes ir–.

Curriculum word list

 

re– means ‘again’ or ‘back’.
sub– means ‘under’.
inter– means ‘between’ or ‘among’.

Curriculum word list

 

super– means ‘above’.
anti– means ‘against’.
auto– means ‘self’ or ‘own’.

Curriculum word list
Spellzone course word list - 1
Spellzone course word list - 2
Spellzone course word list - ante or anti

The suffix –ation.

The suffix –ation is added to verbs to form nouns. The rules already learnt still apply.

Curriculum word list
Spellzone course word list

The suffix –ly.

The suffix –ly is added to an adjective to form an adverb. The rules already learnt still apply. The suffix –ly starts with a consonant letter, so it is added straight on to most root words.

Curriculum word list

Exceptions:
(1) If the root word ends in –y with a consonant letter before it, the y is changed to i, but only if the root word has more than one syllable.
(2) If the root word ends with –le, the –le is changed to –ly.
(3) If the root word ends with –ic,
–ally is added rather than just –ly, except in the word publicly.
(4) The words truly, duly, wholly.

Curriculum word list

Words with endings sounding like /ʒə/ or /tʃə/.

The ending sounding like /ʒə/ is always spelt –sure.
The ending sounding like /tʃə/ is often spelt –ture, but check that the word is not a root word ending in (t)ch with an er ending – e.g. teacher, catcher, richer, stretcher.

Curriculum word list - 1
Curriculum word list - 2
Spellzone word list

Endings which sound like /ʒən/.

If the ending sounds like /ʒən/, it is spelt as –sion.

Curriculum word list
Spellzone word list - 1
Spellzone word list - 2
Spellzone word list - 3
Spellzone poster (pdf)

The suffix –ous.

Sometimes the root word is obvious and the usual rules apply for adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters.
Sometimes there is no obvious root word.
–our is changed to –or before –ous is added.
A final ‘e’ of the root word must be kept if the /dʒ/ sound of ‘g’ is to be kept.
If there is an /i:/ sound before the
–ous ending, it is usually spelt as i, but a few words have e.

Curriculum word list

Endings which sound like /ʃən/, spelt –tion, –sion, –ssion, –cian.

Strictly speaking, the suffixes are –ion and –ian. Clues about whether to put t, s, ss or c before these suffixes often come from the last letter or letters of the root word.
–tion is the most common spelling. It is used if the root word ends in t or te.
–ssion is used if the root word ends in ss or –mit.

–sion is used if the root word ends in d or se.
Exceptions: attend – attention, intend – intention.
–cian is used if the root word ends in c or cs.

Curriculum word list
Spellzone poster (pdf)

Words with the /k/ sound spelt ch (Greek in origin). Curriculum word list
Spellzone course word list
Words with the /ʃ/ sound spelt ch (mostly French in origin). Curriculum word list
Spellzone course word list
Words ending with the /g/ sound spelt –gue and the /k/ sound spelt –que (French in origin). Curriculum word list
Spellzone course word list - 1
Spellzone course word list - 2
Words with the /s/ sound spelt sc (Latin in origin).

In the Latin words from which these words come, the Romans probably pronounced the c and the k as two sounds rather than one – /s/ /k/.

Curriculum word list

Note: Not covered in Spellzone units.

Words with the /eɪ/ sound spelt ei, eigh, or ey. Curriculum word list
Spellzone word list
Possessive apostrophe with plural words.

The apostrophe is placed after the plural form of the word; –s is not added if the plural already ends in
–s, but is added if the plural does not end in –s (i.e. is an irregular plural – e.g. children’s).

Note: singular proper nouns ending in an s use the ’s suffix e.g. Cyprus’s population.

Homophones and near-homophones. Curriculum word list - 1
Curriculum word list - 2
Curriculum word list - 3

Word list – years 3 and 4

Word list: a - b

Word list: c - d

Word list: e - f

Word list: g - l

Word list: m - o

Word list: p

Word list: q - s

Word list: t - w

Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Teachers should continue to emphasise to pupils the relationships between sounds and letters, even when the relationships are unusual. Once root words are learnt in this way, longer words can be spelt correctly, if the rules and guidance for adding prefixes and suffixes are also known.

Examples:

business: once busy is learnt, with due attention to the unusual spelling of the /i/ sound as ‘u’, business can then be spelt as busy + ness, with the y of busy changed to i according to the rule.

disappear: the root word appear contains sounds which can be spelt in more than one way so it needs to be learnt, but the prefix dis– is then simply added to appear.

Understanding the relationships between words can also help with spelling.

Examples:

  • bicycle is cycle (from the Greek for wheel) with bi– (meaning ‘two’) before it.
  • medicine is related to medical so the /s/ sound is spelt as c.
  • opposite is related to oppose, so the schwa sound in opposite is spelt as o.

See the Spellzone course units for content mapped to the curriculum including homophones (H) units.

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"This is a fantastic opportunity for our students!  I'm sure Spellzone will be invaluable in helping them to improve their spellings and therefore improve the quality of their writing in all subject areas!"
Teacher, High School, UK