Endings cial, tial, cious, tious

Rule Breakers - these words break spelling rules  

A few words use ceous to spell the sound /shƏs/:
cretaceous Cretaceous means chalk-like.
The Cretaceous era was when dinosaurs died out.
curvaceous The film star has a curvaceous figure.
herbaceous Type of plant:
We have a herbaceous border in our garden.
sebaceous To do with fat:
Sebaceous glands provide oil for skin and hair.
Also note:
righteous, which keeps the t from right.

A few words use xious to spell the sound/shƏs/:
anxious Mum's illness has made the family very anxious.
noxious The factory fire produced noxious smoke.
obnoxious His rowdy drunken behaviour was obnoxious.
Learning tip to help your spelling To remember anxious, think of anxiety, where x is used to spell the sound /z/.

homophones - learn to spell similar sounding words Only one homophone from this section:

marshal -
1. senior officer
2. person who controls races or organises people.
3. (verb) to arrange in order


martial - to do with warfare

1. The Field Marshal led the parade.
2. The track marshal stopped the cars.

3. He marshalled his troops.
(US: marshaled)

Karate is a martial art.

This completes the work on the endings cial tial cious tious .

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Unit 30: Spelling the endings -cial -tial -cious -tious

Page 7 of 7

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Rule-breakers: -ceous and -xious words

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